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Below are all of the laws that govern the structure of courts that match your search criteria.
|State||Statute||Description/Statute Name||Statutory language||Court/legal body||Function|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 2||Supreme Court; justices; time for convening; concurrence required for judgment; acting Chief Justice||
The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice ofCalifornia and 6 associate justices. The Chief Justice may convene the court at any time. Concurrence of 4 judges present at+ See more
the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting Chief Justice shall perform all functions of the Chief Justice when the Chief Justice is absent or unable to act. The Chief Justice or, if the Chief Justice fails to do so, the court shall select an associate justice as acting Chief Justice.
|Supreme Court||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 3||Courts of appeal; districts; divisions; power; concurrence required for judgment; acting presiding justice||
The Legislature shall divide the State into districts eachcontaining a court of appeal with one or more divisions. Each division consists of a presiding justice and 2 or more associate justices.+ See more
It has the power of a court of appeal and shall conduct itself as a 3-judge court. Concurrence of 2 judges present at the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting presiding justice shall perform all functions of the presiding justice when the presiding justice is absent or unable to act. The presiding justice or, if the presiding justice fails to do so, the Chief Justice shall select an associate justice of that division as acting presiding justice.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. Art. VI, Sec. 4||Superior courts; officers and employees; appellate divisions||
In each county there is a superior court of one or morejudges. The Legislature shall prescribe the number of judges and provide for the officers and employees of each superior+ See more
court. If the governing body of each affected county concurs, the Legislature may provide that one or more judges serve more than one superior court. In each superior court there is an appellate division. The Chief Justice shall assign judges to the appellate division for specified terms pursuant to rules, not inconsistent with statute, adopted by the Judicial Council to promote the independence of the appellate division.
|Superior Court||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 12||Supreme Court; review||The Supreme Court may review the decision of a court of appeal in any cause.||Supreme Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|California||Cal. Const. art. VI, § 1||Judicial power||The judicial power of this State is vested in the Supreme Court, courts of appeal, and superior courts, all of which are courts of record.||Judicial power generally||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Connecticut||Conn. Gen. Stat. § 51-199||Supreme Court Jurisdiction||
(a) The Supreme Court shall have final and conclusive jurisdiction of all matters brought before it according to law, and may carry into execution all its judgments and decrees and+ See more
institute rules of practice and procedure as to matters before it.(b) The following matters shall be taken directly to the Supreme Court: (1) Any matter brought pursuant to the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court under section 2 of article sixteen of the amendments to the Constitution; (2) an appeal in any matter where the Superior Court declares invalid a state statute or a provision of the state Constitution; (3) an appeal in any criminal action involving a conviction for a capital felony under the provisions of section 53a-54b in effect prior to April 25, 2012, class A felony or any other felony, including any persistent offender status, for which the maximum sentence which may be imposed exceeds twenty years; (4) review of a sentence of death pursuant to section 53a-46b; (5) any election or primary dispute brought to the Supreme Court pursuant to section 9-323 or 9-325; (6) an appeal of any reprimand or censure of a probate judge pursuant to section 45a-65; (7) any matter regarding judicial removal or suspension pursuant to section 51-51j; (8) an appeal of any decision of the Judicial Review Council pursuant to section 51-51r; (9) any matter brought to the Supreme Court pursuant to section 52-265a; (10) writs of error; and (11) any other matter as provided by law. (c) The Supreme Court may transfer to itself a cause in the Appellate Court. Except for any matter brought pursuant to its original jurisdiction under section 2 of article sixteen of the amendments to the Constitution, the Supreme Court may transfer a cause or class of causes from itself, including any cause or class of causes pending on July 1, 1983, to the Appellate Court. The court to which a cause is transferred has jurisdiction. (d) The Supreme Court may issue all writs necessary or appropriate in aid of its jurisdiction and agreeable to the usages and principles of law.
|Supreme Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Connecticut||Conn. Gen. Stat. § 51-197a.||Appellate Court Jurisdiction||
Appeals to Appellate Court. Writs. Transfer of jurisdiction from appellate session. (a) Appeals from final judgments or actions of the Superior Court shall be taken to the Appellate Court in+ See more
accordance with section 51-197c, except for small claims, which are not appealable, appeals within the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as provided for in section 51-199, appeals as provided for in sections 8-8 and 8-9, and except as otherwise provided by statute.(b) The Appellate Court may issue all writs necessary or appropriate in aid of its jurisdiction and agreeable to the usages and principles of law. (c) All matters pending in the appellate session of the Superior Court on July 1, 1983, shall be construed as pending with the same status in the Appellate Court on said date. (d) Notwithstanding subsection (c) of this section, the appellate session of the Superior Court shall continue to have jurisdiction over appeals which it heard prior to July 1, 1983, pursuant to the provisions which were applicable at such time. (e) Except as otherwise provided in sections 2-40, 2-42, 7-143, 7-230, 8-8, 8-9, 8-132, 8-132a, 10-153e, 12-4, 13a-76, 31-63, 31-109, 31-118, 31-249b, 31-272, 31-301b, 31-301c, 31-324, 31-491, 31-493, 38a-470, 46a-94, 46a-95, 46b-142, 46b-143, 46b-150c, 51-1a, 51-14, 51-49, 51-50j, 51-164x, 51-165, 51-197a, 51-197b, 51-197c, 51-197e, 51-197f, 51-199, 51-201, 51-202, 51-203, 51-209, 51-210, 51-211, 51-213, 51-215a, 51-216a, 52-235, 52-257, 52-259, 52-263, 52-267, 52-405, 52-434, 52-434a, 52-470, 52-476, 52-477, 52-592, 54-63g, 54-95, 54-96, 54-96a, 54-96b and 54-143, all jurisdiction conferred upon and exercised by the appellate session prior to July 1, 1983, of the Superior Court shall be transferred to the Appellate Court.
|Appellate Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Connecticut||Conn. Gen. Stat. § 51-164s||Superior Court Jurisdiction||
The Superior Court shall be the sole court of original jurisdiction for all causes of action, except such actions over which the courts of probate have original jurisdiction, as provided+ See more
|Superior Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Connecticut||Conn. Const., art. V, § 1||Creation of lower courts||
The judicial power of the state shall be vested in a supreme court, a superior court, and such lower courts as the general assembly shall, from time to time, ordain+ See more
and establish. The powers and jurisdiction of these courts shall be defined by law.
|Lower courts||Creation of the courts|
|Connecticut||Conn. Gen. Stat. § 45a-98||Probate Court Jurisdiction||
+ See more
(a) Probate Courts in their respective districts shall have the power to (1) grant administration of intestate estates of persons who have died domiciled in their districts and of intestate estates
of persons not domiciled in this state which may be granted as provided by section 45a-303; (2) admit wills to probate of persons who have died domiciled in their districts or of nondomiciliaries whose wills may be proved in their districts as provided in section 45a-287; (3) except as provided in section 45a-98a or as limited by an applicable statute of limitations, determine title or rights of possession and use in and to any real, tangible or intangible property that constitutes, or may constitute, all or part of any trust, any decedent’s estate, or any estate under control of a guardian or conservator, which trust or estate is otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the Probate Court, including the rights and obligations of any beneficiary of the trust or estate and including the rights and obligations of any joint tenant with respect to survivorship property; (4) except as provided in section 45a-98a, construe the meaning and effect of (A) any will or trust agreement if a construction is required in connection with the administration or distribution of a trust or estate otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the Probate Court; (B) an inter vivos trust upon a petition that meets the requirements for a petition for an accounting pursuant to subsection (b) or (c) of section 45a-175, provided such an accounting need not be required; or (C) a power of attorney pursuant to section 1-350o; (5) except as provided in section 45a-98a, apply the doctrine of cy pres or approximation; (6) to the extent provided for in section 45a-175, call executors, administrators, trustees, guardians, conservators, and agents acting under powers of attorney created in accordance with sections 1-350 to 1-353b, inclusive, to account concerning the estates entrusted to their charge or for other relief as provided in sections 1-250 to 1-353b, inclusive; and (7) make any lawful orders or decrees to carry into effect the power and jurisdiction conferred upon them by the laws of this state.
(b) The jurisdiction of courts of probate to determine title or rights or to construe instruments or to apply the doctrine of cy pres or approximation pursuant to subsection (a) of this section is concurrent with the jurisdiction of the Superior Court and does not affect the power of the Superior Court as a court of general jurisdiction.
|Probate Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Delaware||Del. Const. Art. IV, § 7||Jurisdiction of the Superior Court||
+ See more
The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction of all causes of a civil nature, real, personal and mixed, at common law and all the other jurisdiction and powers vested by the
laws of this State in the formerly existing Superior Court; and also shall have all the jurisdiction and powers vested by the laws of this State in the formerly existing Court of General Sessions of the Peace and Jail Delivery; and also shall have all the jurisdiction and powers vested by the laws of this State in the formerly existing Court of General Sessions; and also shall have all the jurisdiction and powers vested by the laws of this State in the formerly existing Court of Oyer and Terminer.
|Superior Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Delaware||Del. Const. Art. IV, § 1||Creation of Courts||
+ See more
The judicial power of this State shall be vested in a Supreme Court, a Superior Court, a Court of Chancery, a Family Court, a Court of Common Pleas, a Register's
Court, Justices of the Peace, and such other courts as the General Assembly, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the Members elected to each House, shall have by law established prior to the time this amended Article IV of this Constitution becomes effective or shall from time to time by law establish after such time.
|All courts||Creation of the courts|
|Delaware||10 Del. C. § 925(1)-(19)||General Jurisdiction||
+ See more
The Court and each Judge shall have authority to: (1) Conserve the peace; (2) Commit or bind, with or without surety, as a committing magistrate, for appearance at the proper court, persons charged with having
violated the law together with material witnesses and impose conditions as set forth in § 1021 of this title; (3) Determine and punish civil and criminal contempt; (4) Issue process for the exercise of its jurisdiction and require service thereof under pain of contempt (5) Receive, hear, and make recommendations concerning matters assigned to it by any state or municipal court. Such recommendations shall be certified to the assigning court; (6) Transfer for good cause any proceeding from the Court in 1 county to the Court in any other county; (7) Enter, proceed on, and satisfy in the name of the State any forfeited bond, provided however, that the proceeds of any bond forfeited for a party’s failure to appear in any civil or criminal child support proceeding shall be paid over to the payee of the child support order and applied to the child support account (8) Sit separately or jointly with any or all other Judges; (9) Hear, determine, render, and enforce judgment in any proceeding before the Court; (10) Assess fees, costs, and fines; or remit them in proper cases; (11) After due notice to interested parties, review, revise, or revoke any prior order of the Court with reference to the custody, control, care, support or visitation of any person, or in any proceeding where failure to do so would result in manifest injustice (12) Punish for contempt any person who, in order to evade the Court’s jurisdiction, removed from the State any child concerning whose possession, custody, or alleged unlawful detention, a writ of habeas corpus or other proceeding has been filed; (13) Administer oaths and take acknowledgments; (14) Appoint guardians ad litem; (15) In any civil action where jurisdiction is otherwise conferred upon the Family Court, it may enter such orders against any party to the action as the principles of equity appear to require. (16) Appoint guardians of the person over minors under 18 years of age (17) Appoint attorneys and/or Court-Appointed Special Advocates to serve as guardians ad litem to represent the best interests of a child in any child welfare proceeding; (18) Determine and enter disposition for alleged violations of probation by juveniles in accordance with the procedures established at § 4334 of Title 11. The term Commissioner or any probation counselor as used in § 4334 of Title 11 shall include the appropriate member of the Department of Services for Children, Youth and Their Families; (19) Decide appeals from administrative hearings of substantiated cases of abuse or neglect made pursuant to § 902A(d) of Title 16[repealed], and to decide appeals made pursuant to § 902A(g) of Title 16 [repealed] for orders of administrative expungement of substantiation for the purpose of no longer reporting an individual’s name pursuant to § 8563(b) of Title 11.
|Family Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Delaware||Del. Const. Art. IV, § 7B||Jurisdiction of the Court of Common Pleas||
The Court of Common Pleas shall have all the jurisdiction and powers vested by the laws of this State in the Court of Common Pleas.
|Court of Common Pleas||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Delaware||10 Del. C. § 341||Matters and Causes in Equity||
The Court of Chancery shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine all matters and causes in equity.
|Court of Chancery||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Delaware||Del. Const. Art. IV, § 11||Justices Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court||
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The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction as follows: (1)(a) To receive appeals from the Superior Court in civil causes and to determine finally all matters of appeal in the interlocutory
or final judgments and other proceedings of said Superior Court in civil causes: Provided that on appeal from a verdict of a jury, the findings of the jury, if supported by evidence, shall be conclusive. (1)(b) To receive appeals from the Superior Court in criminal causes, upon application of the accused in all cases in which the sentence shall be death, imprisonment exceeding one month, or fine exceeding One Hundred Dollars, and in such other cases as shall be provided by law; and to determine finally all matters of appeal on the judgments and proceedings of said Superior Court in criminal causes: Provided, however, that appeals from the Superior Court in cases of prosecution under Section 8 of Article V of this Constitution shall be governed by the provisions of that Section. (1)(c) Notwithstanding any provisions of this Section to the contrary, to receive appeals from the Superior Court in criminal causes, upon application by the State in all causes in which the Superior Court, or any inferior court an appeal from which lies to the Superior Court, has granted an accused any of the following: a new trial or judgment of acquittal after a verdict, modification of a verdict, arrest of judgment, relief in any post-conviction proceeding or in any action collaterally attacking a criminal judgment, or a new punishment hearing in a capital case after the court has imposed a sentence of death, or any order or judgment declaring any act of the General Assembly, or any portion of any such act, to be unconstitutional under either the Constitution of the United States or the State of Delaware, inoperative or unenforceable, except that no appeal shall lie where otherwise prohibited by the double jeopardy clause of the Constitution of the United States or of this State. Notwithstanding anything in this Article to the contrary, the General Assembly may by statute implement the jurisdiction herein conferred. (2) Wherever in this Constitution reference is made to a writ of error or a proceeding in error to the Superior Court, such reference shall be construed as referring to the appeal provided for in Section (1)(a) and Section (1)(b) of this Article. (3) To receive appeals from the Superior Court in cases of prosecution under Section 8 of Article V of this Constitution and to determine finally all matters of appeal in such cases. (4) To receive appeals from the Court of Chancery and to determine finally all matters of appeal in the interlocutory or final decrees and other proceedings in chancery. (5) To issue writs of prohibition, quo warranto, certiorari and mandamus to the Superior Court, and the Court of Chancery, or any of the Judges of the said courts and also to any inferior court or courts established or to be established by law and to any of the Judges thereof and to issue all orders, rules and processes proper to give effect to the same. The General Assembly shall have power to provide by law in what manner the jurisdiction and power hereby conferred may be exercised in vacation and whether by one or more Justices of the Supreme Court. (6) To issue such temporary writs or orders in causes pending on appeal, or on writ of error, as may be necessary to protect the rights of parties and any Justice of the Supreme Court may exercise this power when the court is not in session. (7) To exercise such other jurisdiction by way of appeal, writ of error or of certiorari as the General Assembly may from time to time confer upon it. (8) To hear and determine questions of law certified to it by other Delaware courts, the Supreme Court of the United States, a Court of Appeals of the United States, a United States District Court, a United States Bankruptcy Court, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the highest appellate court of any other state, the highest appellate court of any foreign country, or any foreign governmental agency regulating the public issuance or trading of securities, where it appears to the Supreme Court that there are important and urgent reasons for an immediate determination of such questions by it.
|Supreme Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Delaware||Del. Const. Art. IV, § 17||Jurisdictional Changes by General Assembly; Appeals to Supreme Court||
+ See more
The General Assembly, notwithstanding anything contained in this Article, shall have power to repeal or alter any Act of the General Assembly giving jurisdiction to the former Court of Oyer
and Terminer, the former Superior Court, the former Court of General Sessions of the Peace and Jail Delivery, the former Court of General Sessions, the Superior Court hereby established, the Family Court hereby established, the Court of Common Pleas hereby established or the Court of Chancery, in any matter, or giving any power to any of the said courts. The General Assembly shall also have power to confer upon the Superior Court, the Family Court, the Court of Common Pleas and the Court of Chancery jurisdiction and powers in addition to those hereinbefore mentioned. Until the General Assembly shall otherwise direct, there shall be an appeal to the Supreme Court in all cases in which there is an appeal, according to any Act of the General Assembly, to the former Court of Errors and Appeals or to the former Supreme Court of this State.
|All state courts||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Delaware||Del. Const. Art. IV, § 28||Criminal Jurisdiction of Inferior Courts and Justices of the Peace; Regulation of Jurisdiction; Indictment; Jury Trial; Appeals||
+ See more
The General Assembly may by law give to any inferior courts by it established or to be established, or to one or more justices of the peace, jurisdiction of the
criminal matters following, that is to say--assaults and batteries, carrying concealed a deadly weapon, disturbing meetings held for the purpose of religious worship, nuisances, and such other misdemeanors as the General Assembly may from time to time, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the Members elected to each House, prescribe. The General Assembly may by law regulate this jurisdiction, and provide that the proceedings shall be with or without indictment by grand jury, or trial by petit jury, and may grant or deny the privilege of appeal to the Superior Court; provided, however, that there shall be an appeal to the Superior Court in all cases in which the sentence shall be imprisonment exceeding one (1) month, or a fine exceeding One Hundred Dollars ($100.00).
|Lower state courts||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Delaware||10 Del. C. § 9301||Civil Jurisdiction; Amount in Controversy||
+ See more
Unless otherwise specified by law, the Justice of the Peace Court shall have civil jurisdiction over the following: (1) Common-law actions in contract, express or implied, and common-law actions in
tort for damage, destruction or taking of personal property (including replevin), for injury to real property, and for trespass on the land. Jurisdiction over such actions shall be limited to actions in which the matter in demand, damage claimed, or the value of the property whose return is sought does not exceed $15,000. A penalty in any contract exceeding that sum shall not exclude it from this jurisdiction if the sum actually due thereon is within it. The interest also due on any cause of action within this jurisdiction may be added, although the judgment, with interest so added, exceeds $15,000. (2) Actions for any penalty or forfeiture incurred under the provisions of any statute, bylaw or ordinance authorized by statute when the matter in demand does not exceed $15,000. The interest also due on any such cause of action may be added, although the judgment, with interest so added, exceeds $15,000. (3) Summary possession actions as provided in Chapter 57 of Title 25. (4) Distress for rent actions as provided in Chapter 63 of Title 25. (5) Truancy actions as provided in Chapter 27 of Title 14. Except as otherwise provided in Chapter 27 of Title 14, the Justice of the Peace Court shall have original exclusive jurisdiction of such actions. (6) Any other civil jurisdiction provided by law.
|Justice of the Peace Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Nebraska||Neb. Rev. Stat. § 24-517||County Vourt: Jurisdiction||
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Each county court shall have the following jurisdiction:
(1) Exclusive original jurisdiction of all matters relating to decedents' estates, including the probate of wills and the construction thereof, except as provided
in subsection (c) of section 30-2464 and section 30-2486;
(2) Exclusive original jurisdiction in all matters relating to the guardianship of a person, except if a separate juvenile court already has jurisdiction over a child in need of a guardian, concurrent original jurisdiction with the separate juvenile court in such guardianship;
(3) Exclusive original jurisdiction of all matters relating to conservatorship of any person, including (a) original jurisdiction to consent to and authorize a voluntary selection, partition, and setoff of a ward's interest in real estate owned in common with others and to exercise any right of the ward in connection therewith which the ward could exercise if competent and (b) original jurisdiction to license the sale of such real estate for cash or on such terms of credit as shall seem best calculated to produce the highest price subject only to the requirements set forth in section 30-3201;
(4) Concurrent jurisdiction with the district court to involuntarily partition a ward's interest in real estate owned in common with others;
(5) Concurrent original jurisdiction with the district court in all civil actions of any type when the amount in controversy is forty-five thousand dollars or less through June 30, 2005, and as set by the Supreme Court pursuant to subdivision (b) of this subdivision on and after July 1, 2005. (a) When the pleadings or discovery proceedings in a civil action indicate that the amount in controversy is greater than the jurisdictional amount of subdivision (5) of this section, the county court shall, upon the request of any party, certify the proceedings to the district court as provided in section 25-2706. An award of the county court which is greater than the jurisdictional amount of subdivision (5) of this section is not void or unenforceable because it is greater than such amount, however, if an award of the county court is greater than the jurisdictional amount, the county court shall tax as additional costs the difference between the filing fee in district court and the filing fee in county court. (b) The Supreme Court shall adjust the jurisdictional amount for the county court every fifth year commencing July 1, 2005. The adjusted jurisdictional amount shall be equal to the then current jurisdictional amount adjusted by the average percentage change in the unadjusted Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics for the five-year period preceding the adjustment date. The jurisdictional amount shall be rounded to the nearest one-thousand-dollar amount;
(6) Concurrent original jurisdiction with the district court in any criminal matter classified as a misdemeanor or for any infraction. The district court shall have concurrent original jurisdiction in any criminal matter classified as a misdemeanor that arises from the same incident as a charged felony;
(7) Concurrent original jurisdiction with the district court in domestic relations matters as defined in section 25-2740 and with the district court and separate juvenile court in paternity or custody determinations as provided in section 25-2740;
(8) Concurrent original jurisdiction with the district court in matters arising under the Nebraska Uniform Trust Code;
(9) Exclusive original jurisdiction in any action based on violation of a city or village ordinance, except with respect to violations committed by persons under eighteen years of age;
(10) The jurisdiction of a juvenile court as provided in the Nebraska Juvenile Code when sitting as a juvenile court in counties which have not established separate juvenile courts;
(11) Exclusive original jurisdiction in matters of adoption, except if a separate juvenile court already has jurisdiction over the child to be adopted, concurrent original jurisdiction with the separate juvenile court;
(12) Exclusive original jurisdiction in matters arising under the Nebraska Uniform Custodial Trust Act;
(13) Concurrent original jurisdiction with the district court in any matter relating to a power of attorney and the action or inaction of any agent acting under a power of attorney;
(14) Exclusive original jurisdiction in any action arising under sections 30-3401 to 30-3432;
(15) Exclusive original jurisdiction in matters arising under the Nebraska Uniform Transfers to Minors Act;
(16) Concurrent original jurisdiction with the district court in matters arising under the Uniform Principal and Income Act;
(17) Concurrent original jurisdiction with the district court in matters arising under the Uniform Testamentary Additions to Trusts Act (1991) except as otherwise provided in subdivision (1) of this section; and
(18) Concurrent original jurisdiction with the district court to determine contribution rights under section 68-919; and
(19) All other jurisdiction heretofore provided and not specifically repealed by Laws 1972, Legislative Bill 1032, and such other jurisdiction as hereafter provided by law.
|County Courts||Jurisdiction of the courts|