Transparency

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of obligation Actor
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Washington DC DC ST § 5-113.06 Records open to public inspection
(a) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the records to be kept by paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of § 5-113.01 shall be open to public inspection
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when not in actual use, and this requirement shall be enforceable by mandatory injunction issued by the Superior Court of the District of Columbia on the application of any person.(b) The name, address, date of birth, occupation, and photograph of any person convicted of a violation of Chapter 27 of Title 22, shall be made available to the public upon written request, in exchange for a reasonable fee established by the Mayor or his or her designee.
Obligation to respond to public records requests Law enforcement
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Pennsylvania 65 Pa. Stat. Ann. §§67.701; 65 Pa. Stat. Ann. §§67.702; 65 Pa. Stat. Ann. §§67.703; 65 Pa. Stat. Ann. §§67.901 Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Right to Know Law
Section 701. Access. (a) General rule. — Unless otherwise provided by law, a public record, legislative record or financial record shall be accessible for inspection and duplication in accordance with this
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act. A record being provided to a requester shall be provided in the medium requested if it exists in that medium; otherwise, it shall be provided in the medium in which it exists. Public records, legislative records or financial records shall be available for access during the regular business hours of an agency. (b) Construction. — Nothing in this act shall be construed to require access to any computer either of an agency or individual employee of an agency. Section 702. Requests. Agencies may fulfill verbal, written or anonymous verbal or written requests for access to records under this act. If the requester wishes to pursue the relief and remedies provided for in this act, the request for access to records must be a written request. Section 703. Written requests. A written request for access to records may be submitted in person, by mail, by e-mail, by facsimile or, to the extent provided by agency rules, any other electronic means. A written request must be addressed to the open-records officer designated pursuant to section 502. Employees of an agency shall be directed to forward requests for records to the open-records officer. A written request should identify or describe the records sought with sufficient specificity to enable the agency to ascertain which records are being requested and shall include the name and address to which the agency should address its response. A written request need not include any explanation of the requester’s reason for requesting or intended use of the records unless otherwise required by law. Chapter 9 Agency Response Section 901. General rule. Upon receipt of a written request for access to a record, an agency shall make a good faith effort to determine if the record requested is a public record, legislative record or financial record and whether the agency has possession, custody or control of the identified record, and to respond as promptly as possible under the circumstances existing at the time of the request. All applicable fees shall be paid in order to receive access to the record requested. The time for response shall not exceed five business days from the date the written request is received by the open-records officer for an agency. If the agency fails to send the response within five business days of receipt of the written request for access, the written request for access shall be deemed denied.
Obligation to respond to public records requests State/statewide agency
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 47:1A-8 Common law right of access
Nothing contained in [the state open record law], as amended and supplemented, shall be construed as limiting the common law right of access to a government record, including criminal investigatory
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records of a law enforcement agency.
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 47:1A-1 Legislative findings and declarations
Government records shall be readily accessible for inspection, copying, or examination by the citizens of this State, with certain exceptions, for the protection of the public interest, and any limitations
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on the right of access accorded by P.L.1963, c. 73 (C.47:1A-1 et seq.) as amended and supplemented, shall be construed in favor of the public's right of access;
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 47:1A-5 custodian of government records - obligations The custodian of a government record shall permit the record to be inspected, examined, and copied by any person during regular business hours; Obligation to respond to public records requests All
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Louisiana La. Stat. Ann. § 44:31 Public Records Requests
Except as otherwise provided in this Chapter or as otherwise specifically provided by law, and in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, any person of the age of majority
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may inspect, copy, or reproduce any public record.
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Louisiana La. Stat. Ann. § 44:32 Reasonable fees
For all public records, except public records of state agencies, it shall be the duty of the custodian of such public records to provide copies to persons so requesting. The
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custodian may establish and collect reasonable fees for making copies of public records
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Louisiana La. Stat. Ann. § 44:31.1 Exception to general duty to respond to public record requests
For the purposes of this Chapter, person [to whom a custodian must provide records] does not include an individual in custody after sentence following a felony conviction who has exhausted
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his appellate remedies when the request for public records is not limited to grounds upon which the individual could file for post conviction relief under Code of Criminal Procedure Article 930.3. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in R.S. 44:32, the custodian may make an inquiry of any individual who applies for a public record to determine if such individual is in custody after sentence following a felony conviction who has exhausted his appellate remedies and the custodian may make any inquiry necessary to determine if the request of any such individual in custody for a felony conviction is limited to grounds upon which such individual may file for post conviction relief.
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. § 25-61-5(1)(a) Public access to records; redaction; maximum waiting period; explanation of delay; denials
Except as otherwise provided by Sections 25-61-9 and 25-61-11, all public records are hereby declared to be public property, and any person shall have the right to inspect, copy or mechanically reproduce or
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obtain a reproduction of any public record of a public body in accordance with reasonable written procedures adopted by the public body concerning the cost, time, place and method of access, and public notice of the procedures shall be given by the public body, or, if a public body has not adopted written procedures, the right to inspect, copy or mechanically reproduce or obtain a reproduction of a public record of the public body shall be provided within one (1) working day after a written request for a public record is made. No public body shall adopt procedures which will authorize the public body to produce or deny production of a public record later than seven (7) working days from the date of the receipt of the request for the production of the record.
Obligation to respond to public records requests All courts
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South Carolina S.C. Code Ann. § 22-1-90 Monthly reports of moneys collected; treasurer's record
Every magistrate shall, on the first Wednesday in each month or within ten days thereafter, make to the auditor and treasurer of his county a full and accurate statement in
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writing of all moneys collected by him on account of fines, penalties or forfeitures during the past month together with the title of each case in which a fine has been paid. The county treasurer shall keep a record of the title of each case in which the fine has been paid, the nature of the offense for which the fine was imposed and the amount thereof. In default thereof the magistrate or treasurer, as the case may be, shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding two months or both, at the discretion of the court.
Obligation to respond to public records requests Municipal court
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South Carolina S.C. Code Ann. § 30-4-30 Right to inspect or copy public records; fees; notification as to public availability of records; presumption upon failure to give notice; records to be available when requestor appears in person
Each public body, upon written request for records made under this chapter, shall within fifteen days (excepting Saturdays, Sundays, and legal public holidays) of the receipt of any such request
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notify the person making such request of its determination and the reasons therefor. Such a determination shall constitute the final opinion of the public body as to the public availability of the requested public record and, if the request is granted, the record must be furnished or made available for inspection or copying. If written notification of the determination of the public body as to the availability of the requested public record is neither mailed nor personally delivered to the person requesting the document within the fifteen days allowed herein, the request must be considered approved.
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 45-218 nspection of records; request; response; refusal, when; fees
All public records shall be open for inspection by any person, except as otherwise provided by this act, and suitable facilities shall be made available by each public agency for this purpose. No
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person shall removal [remove] original copies of public records from the office of any public agency without the written permission of the custodian of the record.
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 2-6-1003 Access to public information--safety and security exceptions--Montana historical society exception
A public officer may withhold from public scrutiny information relating to individual or public safety or the security of public facilities, including public schools, jails, correctional facilities, private correctional facilities,
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and prisons, if release of the information jeopardizes the safety of facility personnel, the public, students in a public school, or inmates of a facility. A public officer may not withhold from public scrutiny any more information than is required to protect individual or public safety or the security of public facilities.
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 2-6-1006 Public information requests--fees
(1) A person may request public information from a public agency. A public agency shall make the means of requesting public information accessible to all persons. (2) Upon receiving a request
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for public information, a public agency shall respond in a timely manner to the requesting person by: (a) making the public information maintained by the public agency available for inspection and copying by the requesting person; or (b) providing the requesting person with an estimate of the time it will take to fulfill the request if the public information cannot be readily identified and gathered and any fees that may be charged pursuant to subsection (3). (3) A public agency may charge a fee for fulfilling a public information request. Except where a fee is otherwise provided for by law, the fee may not exceed the actual costs directly incident to fulfilling the request in the most cost-efficient and timely manner possible. The fee must be documented. The fee may include the time required to gather public information. The public agency may require the requesting person to pay the estimated fee prior to identifying and gathering the requested public information. (4) A public agency is not required to alter or customize public information to provide it in a form specified to meet the needs of the requesting person. (5) If a public agency agrees to a request to customize a records request response, the costs of the customization may be included in the fees charged by the agency. (6)(a) The secretary of state is authorized to charge fees under this section. The fees must be set and deposited in accordance with 2-15-405. The fees must be collected in advance. (b) The secretary of state may not charge a fee to a member of the legislature or public officer for any search relative to matters pertaining to the duties of the member's office or for a certified copy of any law or resolution passed by the legislature relative to the member's official duties.
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 51, § 24A.30 Court records--Confidentiality--Sealed records--Order requirement
All court records, as defined by Section 32.1 of Title 12 of the Oklahoma Statutes, shall be considered public records and shall be subject to the provisions of the Oklahoma
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Open Records Act, unless otherwise identified by statute to be confidential. If confidentiality is not required by statute, the court may seal a record or portion of a record only if a compelling privacy interest exists which outweighs the public's interest in the record. In all cases where the court is sealing a record or portion of a record, the court shall enter an order which shall be public and shall:1. Make findings of fact which identify the facts which the court relied upon in entering its order; 2. Make conclusions of law specific enough so that the public is aware of the legal basis for the sealing of the record; 3. Utilize the least restrictive means for achieving confidentiality; and 4. Be narrowly tailored so that only the portions of the record subject to confidentiality are sealed and the remainder of the record is kept open.
Obligation to respond to public records requests State courts
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 51, § 24A.5 Inspection, copying and/or mechanical reproduction of records--Exemptions
All records of public bodies and public officials shall be open to any person for inspection, copying, or mechanical reproduction during regular business hours; provided:1. The Oklahoma Open Records Act,
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Sections 24A.1 through 24A.30 of this title, does not apply to records specifically required by law to be kept confidential including: a. records protected by a state evidentiary privilege such as the attorney-client privilege, the work product immunity from discovery and the identity of informer privileges, b. records of what transpired during meetings of a public body lawfully closed to the public such as executive sessions authorized under the Oklahoma Open Meeting Act, c. personal information within driver records as defined by the Driver's Privacy Protection Act, 18 United States Code, Sections 2721 through 2725, d. information in the files of the Board of Medicolegal Investigations obtained pursuant to Sections 940 and 941 of Title 63 of the Oklahoma Statutes that may be hearsay, preliminary unsubstantiated investigation-related findings, or confidential medical information, or e. any test forms, question banks and answer keys developed for state licensure examinations, but specifically excluding test preparation materials or study guides; 2. All Social Security numbers included in a record may be confidential regardless of the person's status as a public employee or private individual and may be redacted or deleted prior to release of the record by the public body; 3. Any reasonably segregable portion of a record containing exempt material shall be provided after deletion of the exempt portions; provided however, the Department of Public Safety shall not be required to assemble for the requesting person specific information, in any format, from driving records relating to any person whose name and date of birth or whose driver license number is not furnished by the requesting person. The Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation shall not be required to assemble for the requesting person any criminal history records relating to persons whose names, dates of birth, and other identifying information required by the Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation pursuant to administrative rule are not furnished by the requesting person; 4. Any request for a record which contains individual records of persons, and the cost of copying, reproducing or certifying each individual record is otherwise prescribed by state law, the cost may be assessed for each individual record, or portion thereof requested as prescribed by state law. Otherwise, a public body may charge a fee only for recovery of the reasonable, direct costs of record copying, or mechanical reproduction. Notwithstanding any state or local provision to the contrary, in no instance shall the record copying fee exceed twenty-five cents ($0.25) per page for records having the dimensions of eight and one-half (8 ½ ) by fourteen (14) inches or smaller, or a maximum of One Dollar ($1.00) per copied page for a certified copy. However, if the request: a. is solely for commercial purpose, or b. would clearly cause excessive disruption of the essential functions of the public body, then the public body may charge a reasonable fee to recover the direct cost of record search and copying; however, publication in a newspaper or broadcast by news media for news purposes shall not constitute a resale or use of a record for trade or commercial purpose and charges for providing copies of electronic data to the news media for a news purpose shall not exceed the direct cost of making the copy. The fee charged by the Department of Public Safety for a copy in a computerized format of a record of the Department shall not exceed the direct cost of making the copy unless the fee for the record is otherwise set by law. Any public body establishing fees under this act shall post a written schedule of the fees at its principal office and with the county clerk. In no case shall a search fee be charged when the release of records is in the public interest, including, but not limited to, release to the news media, scholars, authors and taxpayers seeking to determine whether those entrusted with the affairs of the government are honestly, faithfully, and competently performing their duties as public servants. The fees shall not be used for the purpose of discouraging requests for information or as obstacles to disclosure of requested information; 5. The land description tract index of all recorded instruments concerning real property required to be kept by the county clerk of any county shall be available for inspection or copying in accordance with the provisions of the Oklahoma Open Records Act; provided, however, the index shall not be copied or mechanically reproduced for the purpose of sale of the information; 6. A public body must provide prompt, reasonable access to its records but may establish reasonable procedures which protect the integrity and organization of its records and to prevent excessive disruptions of its essential functions. Any public body which makes the requested records available on the Internet shall meet the obligation of providing prompt, reasonable access to its records as required by this paragraph; and 7. A public body shall designate certain persons who are authorized to release records of the public body for inspection, copying, or mechanical reproduction. At least one person shall be available at all times to release records during the regular business hours of the public body.
Obligation to respond to public records requests State courts
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Utah Utah R. J. Admin. 4-202.03 Records Access (1) Any person may access a public court record. Obligation to respond to public records requests All courts
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Wisconsin Wis. Stat. § 19.35(1)(a); Wis. Stat. § 19.35(1)(am) Access to records; fees
(1) RIGHT TO INSPECTION. (a) Except as otherwise provided by law, any requester has a right to inspect any record. Substantive common law principles construing the right to inspect, copy
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or receive copies of records shall remain in effect. The exemptions to the requirement of a governmental body to meet in open session under s. 19.85 are indicative of public policy, but may be used as grounds for denying public access to a record only if the authority or legal custodian under s. 19.33 makes a specific demonstration that there is a need to restrict public access at the time that the request to inspect or copy the record is made. (am) In addition to any right under par. (a), any requester who is an individual or person authorized by the individual has a right to inspect any personally identifiable information pertaining to the individual in a record containing personally identifiable information that is maintained by an authority and to make or receive a copy of any such information. The right to inspect or copy information in a record under this paragraph does not apply to any of the following: 1. Any record containing personally identifiable information that is collected or maintained in connection with a complaint, investigation or other circumstances that may lead to an enforcement action, administrative proceeding, arbitration proceeding or court proceeding, or any such record that is collected or maintained in connection with such an action or proceeding. 2. Any record containing personally identifiable information that, if disclosed, would do any of the following: a. Endanger an individual’s life or safety. b. Identify a confidential informant. c. Endanger the security, including the security of the population or staff, of any state prison under s. 302.01, jail, as defined in s. 165.85 (2) (bg), juvenile correctional facility, as defined in s. 938.02 (10p), secured residential care center for children and youth, as defined in s. 938.02 (15g), mental health institute, as defined in s. 51.01 (12), center for the developmentally disabled, as defined in s. 51.01 (3), or facility, specified under s. 980.065, for the institutional care of sexually violent persons. d. Compromise the rehabilitation of a person in the custody of the department of corrections or detained in a jail or facility identified in subd. 2. c. 2m. The actual address, as defined in s. 165.68 (1) (b), of a participant in the program established in s. 165.68.
Obligation to respond to public records requests All courts
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 12-19-180(f) Criminal history processing fees; use

(f) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prevent, prohibit, or otherwise limit or restrict public access to individual court records from the official custodians thereof, if the

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records are otherwise subject to public disclosure by law or court rule, nor shall anything in this section be construed to allow access to any court records which are not otherwise subject to public disclosure by law or court rule.

Obligation to respond to public records requests State courts
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 39-121 Inspection of public records

Public records and other matters in the custody of any officer shall be open to inspection by any person at all times during office hours.

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